But they said more work was needed to look at human mechanisms. The number of cells derived from each fetus can vary from one part of the body to another, and often leads to characteristic mosaicism skin coloration in human chimeras. Twin study Twin studies are utilized in an attempt to determine how much of a particular trait is attributable to either genetics or environmental influence. The cause of stillbirth is often unknown, but the rate of babies who are stillborn is higher in twins and multiple births. A female twin foetus is therefore exposed to a brother's testosterone and a male twin foetus to a sister's oestrogen. Also, in an unknown proportion of cases, two zygotes may fuse soon after fertilization, resulting in a single chimeric embryo, and, later, fetus.
Although other factors could play a part - the women were less likely to marry - the team blamed exposure in the womb to the male hormone testosterone. There are two types of stillbirth, including intrauterine death and intrapartum death. Conjoined twins Conjoined twins or the once-commonly used term "siamese" are monozygotic twins whose bodies are joined together during pregnancy. A chimera may be intersex , composed of cells from a male twin and a female twin. Premature birth and low birth weights, especially when under 3. This results in a set of twins with identical genes from the mother's side, but different genes from the father's side. Intrapartum death, which is more common, occurs when a baby dies while the mother is giving birth. A chimera may arise either from monozygotic twin fetuses where it would be impossible to detect , or from dizygotic fetuses, which can be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body. The degree of difficulty rises if a vital organ or structure is shared between twins, such as the brain , heart or liver. Chimera genetics A chimera is an ordinary person or animal except that some of their parts actually came from their twin or from the mother. Chang and Eng Bunker , born in Siam now Thailand in , were the origin of the term "Siamese twins". The increased focused communication between two twins may isolate them from the social environment surrounding them. Experts have agreed testosterone might potentially damage female fertility. However, male and female foetuses have similar oestrogen levels, so a female is more likely to be affected, according to Dr Virpi Lummaa's team. Another abnormality that can result in monozygotic twins of different sexes is if the egg is fertilized by a male sperm but during cell division only the X chromosome is duplicated. There are several reasons for the "vanishing" fetus, including it being embodied or absorbed by the other fetus, placenta or the mother. Another term to describe what some people call "twin talk" is cryptophasia where a language is developed by twins that only they can understand. But they said more work was needed to look at human mechanisms. Dr Lummaa's team offer several explanations. Current research is looking into the impacts of a richer social environment for these twins to stimulate their development of language. Intrauterine death occurs when a baby dies during late pregnancy. Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been used widely in the exploration of human nature. The probability of this is so small that multiples having different sexes is universally accepted as a sound basis for in utero clinical determination that the multiples are not monozygotic. One such pairing was born in Germany in to a white father from Germany and a black mother from Ghana. Both cloned ova are then fertilized by different sperm and the coalesced eggs undergo further cell duplications developing as a chimeric blastomere. Male twins 'can reduce fertility' Same-sex twins were more likely to have babies A twin brother can reduce his female twin's chances of having children, say scientists at Sheffield University. These studies have converged on the notion that there is a greater rate of delay in language development in twins compared to their single-born counterparts.
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Five conjoined twins you won't believe EXIST! ~Body Bizarre #1
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