Perhaps subtle polymorphic variations in genes that, when non-functional, lead to serious learning difficulties can have relatively specific modulating influences on intellectual or social abilities Evidence is emerging, from studies of both humans and mice, for a general influence upon intelligence as indicated by the large number of X-linked mental retardation syndromes. They also usually have difficulties in arithmetical abilities and may lack even a basic concept of number 26 , implying dosage-sensitive X-linked genes are also involved in numerical cognitive skills and spatial intelligence. In , Casey et al. In a few females have greater variance.
Being unprepared for the sudden change in climate, the survivors were those intelligent enough to invent new tools and ways of keeping warm and finding new sources of food for example, adapting to ocean fishing based on prior fishing skills used in lakes and streams that became frozen. This hypothesis was not supported: The study, conducted on academics from 30 different disciplines, found that the more a particular field values gifted-ness, the fewer the female PhDs in that discipline. On the cognitive reflection test ,  which consists of "trick questions" where the intuitive answer is wrong, women scored on average 1. Chimpanzees live in groups of about 50 individuals whereas humans typically have a social circle of about people, which is also the typical size of social communities in small societies and personal social networks;  this number is now referred to as Dunbar's number. Occasionally, milder cases are not detected until adulthood—but these are likely to be mosaics rather than purely X-monosomic—about one-half of phenotypic Turner syndrome patients have detectable mosaicism for a second cell line. Previous work had demonstrated X-linked imprinting effects on the volumes of the superior temporal gyrus 46 , as well as on occipital white matter and cerebellar grey matter As evidence, Dunbar cites a relationship between neocortex size and group size of various mammals. Growing human brains require more nutrition than brains of related species of ape. There is higher prevalence of dyslexia in males than in females. This review shall consider the accumulating evidence that there are several genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that could influence the role of X-linked genes in sexual dimorphism, not only in humans but also in mice, and thus potentially in other mammalian species too. We do not currently know why or how this occurs although there are recent intriguing leads This is baffling at first sight, because X-inactivation must have evolved for the purpose of ensuring dosage equality in sex chromosome expressed genes between males and females of the species. The behaviour was not influenced by the stage of the oestrus cycle, locomotor activity, response to novelty or the parental origin of the single X-chromosome. The Y-chromosome does indeed contain a substantial proportion of genes that are involved in spermatogenesis 11 , Accordingly, deleterious gene-function will become suppressed in females. Skewed patterns of X-inactivation may arise, which will influence the expression of recessive X-linked disease mutations in females. These costs early in life build facilitators that reduce the cost of neuron firing later in life, and as a result the peaks of the brain's costs and the peak of the brain's performance are timed on opposite sides of puberty with the costs peaking at a sexually immature age while performance peaks at a sexually mature age. However, researcher Richard Lynn challenged this consensus on two grounds: Current research shows that believing in such claims increases gender bias in evaluations of others and backlash effects against females who violate gender norms. Alternatively, expression could be exclusively from the maternally inherited X-chromosome and would be sexually dimorphic if the gene concerned was subject to X-inactivation. This could explain why despite the absence of clear differences in intelligence between males and females on average, there are clear differences between male and female propensities to display their intelligence in ostentatious forms. The meta-analysis also found that although there were no overall differences, a small sex difference that favored males in complex problem solving is still present in high school. For example, if only individuals capable of remembering what they had agreed to were punished for breaking agreements, evolution would have selected against the ability to remember what one had agreed to. The researchers concluded that negative stereotypes about women in math reduce their level of math learning, which then leads to poorer performance in negatively stereotyped domains. Because the escapees are interspersed among genes that are subject to X-inactivation, they must be protected in some way.
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