The most likely to be uninsured are the working poor. Making divorce more difficult will only make marriage less attractive, relative to cohabitation. Until recently, we have relied on judicial discretion and parental goodwill to enforce child support obligations. Of the father Murray says: Family disruption raises the risk of dropping out percent for the average white child, percent for the average Hispanic child, and 76 percent for the average black child. Enforcing child support will not only increase the income of single mothers but also sends a strong message to men that if they father a child they become responsible for supporting that child for at least 18 years. In Murray's eyes, the mothers are fully responsible for any children they bear in an age when contraceptives and abortion are freely available.
Health care and child care are two areas in which poor two-parent families receive less government help than well-off two-parent families and impoverished single-parent families. Women who became mothers in their teens—freed from child-raising duties by their late 20s and early 30s to pursue employment while poorer women who waited to become mothers were still stuck at home watching their young children—wound up paying more in taxes than they had collected in welfare. Once sex and childrearing were "liberated" from marriage and women could support themselves, two of the most important incentives for marriage were gone. The results were that Family disruption increases the risk of school failure by 24 percentage points among Hispanics, 17 percentage points among whites, and 13 percentage points among blacks. But most men do not fall into this category. The evidence, however, does not show that family disruption is the principal cause of high school failure, poverty, and delinquency. What Accounts for Poor Outcomes? Unfortunately, we cannot rule out the possibility that the gap stems from some unmeasured difference between one- and two-parent families, such as alcoholism, child abuse, or parental indifference. As a result of Clinton's first budget, we now have a very good program, the Earned Income Tax Credit EITC , for subsidizing the earnings of low-wage workers with children. The pregnancy rate in this group, although falling, rose slightly in , to A better way to encourage marriage is to make sure that parents -- especially poor parents -- are not penalized when they do get married. In addition, low-skilled men in the U. Obstructed labour is normally dealt with by Caesarean section in industrialized nations ; however, in developing regions where medical services might be unavailable, it can lead to eclampsia , obstetric fistula , infant mortality , or maternal death. Confidence in the major findings is strengthened because they hold up across a variety of surveys. Nevertheless, it is clear that parental breakup reduces children's access to important economic, parental, and community resources. A second factor in the growth of single motherhood is the decline in men's earning power relative to women's. More than half of the children born in will spend some or all of their childhood with only one parent, typically their mother. While single mothers have higher poverty rates than married mothers in all industrialized countires, they are worst off in the United States. At present mothers bear a disproportionate share of the costs of raising children. In most European countries, by contrast, once an adolescent has reached the age of consent, he or she can legally have sexual relations with adults because it is held that in general although certain limitations may still apply , reaching the age of consent enables a juvenile to consent to sex with any partner who has also reached that age. The benefit should be conditional on having a court-ordered child support award, so that single mothers have an incentive to obtain an award, and it should be implemented in conjunction with automatic wage withholding so that fathers cannot shirk their responsibility. Adolescent sexuality In most countries, most males experience sexual intercourse for the first time before their 20th birthday. Overall, McLanahan and her colleagues have examined six nationally representative data sets, containing over 25, children. One survey asked high school students whether their parents helped them with their school work and supervised their social activities. Young mothers and their babies are also at greater risk of contracting HIV.
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