The rotary shaping tool is a shallow cone having the same diameter as the ware being formed and shaped to the desired form of the back of the article being made. With care it is possible to apply a second coat of engobe of a different colour to the first and to incise decoration through the second coat to expose the colour of the underlying coat. These can then be altered by impressing , bulging , carving , fluting , and incising. Clay bodies and mineral contents[ edit ] Preparation of clay for pottery in India There are several materials that are referred to as clay. Prior to some shaping processes, clay must be prepared such as tablewares although some studio potters find hand-building more conducive to create one-of-a-kind works of art. Thrown pieces can be further modified by the attachment of handles, lids, feet and spouts. Jiggering is the operation of bringing a shaped tool into contact with the plastic clay of a piece under construction, the piece itself being set on a rotating plaster mould on the wheel.
A glaze may be applied to the bisque form and the object can be decorated in several ways. It is common for clays and other materials to be mixed to produce clay bodies suited to specific purposes. Mineral components of the clay body will undergo chemical changes that will change the colour of the clay. Contrasting coloured clays and grogs are sometimes used to produce patterns in the finished wares. Common red clay and Shale clay have vegetable and ferric oxide impurities which make them useful for bricks, but are generally unsatisfactory for pottery except under special conditions of a particular deposit. In a process called "throwing" coming from the Old English word thrawan which means to twist or turn,  a ball of clay is placed in the centre of a turntable, called the wheel-head, which the potter rotates with a stick, with foot power or with a variable-speed electric motor. Additives can be worked into the clay body prior to forming, to produce desired effects in the fired wares. Glaze is a glassy coating on pottery, the primary purposes of which are decoration and protection. Pressure casting was developed in the s for the production of sanitaryware although, more recently, it has been applied to tableware. Engobe slip may be applied by painting or by dipping to provide a uniform, smooth, coating. Now, except for use by some studio potters, the process is obsolete. Carving Pottery vessels may be decorated by shallow carving of the clay body, typically with a knife or similar instrument used on the wheel. Developed in the UK just after World War II by the company Service Engineers, roller-heads were quickly adopted by manufacturers around the world; they remain the dominant method for producing flatware. The litho comprises three layers: This ideally suited to the making of wares that cannot be formed by other methods of shaping. The last large-scale application before its demise in the face of environmental clean air restrictions was in the production of salt-glazed sewer-pipes. This is the latest advance in forming ceramic objects. Jiggering and jolleying have been used in the production of pottery since at least the 18th century. These operations are carried out on the potter's wheel and allow the time taken to bring wares to a standardized form to be reduced. Coarse additives such as sand and grog fired clay which has been finely ground are sometimes used to give the final product a required texture. Small amounts can be added to porcelain to increase plasticity. Ceramic glaze Two panels of earthenware tiles painted with polychrome glazes over a white glaze. After this the object is "glazed fired", which causes the glaze material to melt, then adhere to the object. Decorating and glazing[ edit ] Contemporary pottery from the State of Hidalgo , Mexico Italian red earthenware vase covered with a mottled pale blue glaze Pottery may be decorated in many different ways. This is a clay slip , that is used to coat the surface of pottery, usually before firing. There are various methods of transferring the design while removing the backing-paper, some of which are suited to machine application. With care it is possible to apply a second coat of engobe of a different colour to the first and to incise decoration through the second coat to expose the colour of the underlying coat.
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